global connection s of continent internet

Advantages and disadvantages of the internet

To understand where and how it benefits users and the world we need first to define what is internet. The internet then is defined as an interconnection of millions of computers or devices connected to communicate and share resources and information. It is a big network made up of many smaller networks. It is made by combining many LAN, MAN, and WAN networking to create one big global network.

Today internet is used in all imaginable sectors of our lives, including education, health, crime control, socialization, business, and many others. Its main benefits include reduced cost of communication and increased speed of the same. However, it has made many users mostly youth to be addicted to technology.


examples of flash memories USB drive, memory stick SD card

Flash memory: Uses, advantages and disadvantages

Flash memory is a non-volatile type of storage device that is used to store and move data permanently. They are called flash memory since they are Electrical Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) technology to read and write data. They use electricity to read and write many times on the device

Flash memories are used in MP3 players, USB drives, robots, vehicle radios, smartphones, and smart TV among many application areas. They are portable, non-volatile, and have no moving parts which are their many advantages. However, their main disadvantage is they can get misplaced due to their size and can also be used to spread computer viruses.


biometric authentication system face detection

Characteristics and advantages of biometric authentication

Authentication means a way of verifying the identity of an individual, while biometrics means the use of the biological or behavioral characteristics of humans that are unique. Biometric authentication means using the unique biological characteristics of a person to verify that the user is the one that they claim to be. The user data is first recorded and stored in a database. When a user comes for authentication the system compares the stored data and the real user authentication feature being presented. If the feature matches what is on the system they are authenticated.

The main types of biometric authentication techniques are fingerprint, face recognition, iris, retina, and signature palm among other methods used. Their main advantages are they are secure from data threats, unique, don’t require remembrance, and are simple to verify.


Functions and type of Video Graphic Adapter (VGA)

This is an adapter that converts the processed images from the PC processor to the computer monitor. In early PC the adapter was added to the computer as an expansion card, but in today`s PC, the VGA adapter is integrated into the motherboard.

video graphic card vga

Functions of video graphic adapter (VGA)

The main function of the adapter is to convert the processed information from the PC processor to images that can be displayed on the connected monitor. Continue Reading

Functions of system BIOS and its settings

BIOS stands for Basic Input Output System and is also known as System BIOS. It is a piece of software stored in ROM flash memory called Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) which is an EPROM. BIOS carries the basic instructions that instruct the computer on how to boot and from where. It is a firmware type of software designed and installed by the computer’s manufacturer.

BIOS ROM is mounted on the computer motherboard. The software stored in it checks if all the computer hardware and other component are working well before it gives way for the operating system to take over. If any hardware part is not functioning well, the Error message will be displayed, i.e. keyboard not connected.

The main function of system BIOS is to load the operating system, carry out the Power-On Self Test (POST), give access to basic hardware settings, and create a bridge between the operating system and hardware. BIOS settings can be accessed by clicking DEL, F10, F12, and F2 depending on manufacturer settings.


Functions of a System basic input output system (BIOS)

System BIOS is an important component of a computer and if not present the computer may not even boot at all. Its main functions include:

  1. Carries out the POST (Power On Shelf Test): this involves checking if all the computer hardware is connected and working as expected and if not it gives an Error message.
  2. Loads operating system: They load Bootstrap loader which then takes over and boots the computer using the available types of operating system
  3. BIOS setup: It offers the basic setup when one can change the date, set a hardware password (BIOS password), and set other hardware configurations i.e. the boot order of storage media. It is also known as a CMOS setup.
  4. The interface between the hardware and the operating system. The software is the first software to load which then checks for a bootable device where the operating system is located and loads it to the RAM.

System BIOS manufacturers

The CMOS chips that are used to store BIOS are manufactured by some of the most renowned companies in the world which include:

  1. AMI – American Megatrends Inc. It is the world’s largest BIOS manufacturer. According to its website, it was founded in 1985. Its headquarter is in Atlanta but many offices around the world. Apart from BIOS firmware they also manufacture motherboards.
  2. Phoenix Technology is another company that manufactures BIOS Firmware. It is a Silicon Valley company. Phoenix headquarters are located in Campbell, California with offices worldwide.
  3. Winbond Electronics Corporation. It was established in 1987. Their headquarters are in Central Taiwan Science Park, Taiwan. They are also involved in the manufacturing of the main memory (RAM).
  4. ASUS

How does System BIOS work?

When the computer is powered the first computer processor checks for the BIOS software and pass over instruction to continue. After that, it takes over and first, it checks the CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) chip content. It then starts the Power-On Self-Test (POST) process where it checks if all hardware is connected and working correctly. 

When that is done it checks the drive or location that has the bootstrap and loads. It passes over the instruction to the operating system to take over the other steps to finish booting. After the Operating system takes over BIOS is not used again during the operation of the system until when booting again. 

How to access BIOS setting information.

Restart the computer and before anything start appearing on the screen click on the DELETE key on the keyboard or any other key that will allow viewing of the BIOS setup. Other keys used to access BIOS settings are F1, F12, F2, and F10 depending on the manufacturer’s setting.

If it is locked with a password it will open a command line so that you can key in the password. After that, you will be presented with the required information on a mostly blue monitor screen.

System BIOS setting utility

When you get access to the setting you can change several settings which include the following. NOTE: DON’T MAKE CHANGES TO BIOS IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHAT YOU DOING

  1. System date/time:- set date and time
  2. Boot sequence: It is used to set the order in which the system will check where the bootable file is located to start booting the computer.
  3. Drive configuration:- configure CD/DVD drive, floppy disk
  4. Security: to set the password to access BIOS setup
  5. Mouse and keyboard: lock or unlock the use of any
  6. Plug and play:- set how plug and play devices are connected.
  7. Power management:- setting different ways of managing power e.g. standby.
  8. System information: it provides data on basic hardware specifications of computers such as main memory RAM and Hard disk size.

How to upgrade System BIOS

Today BIOS firmware is stored in a flash ROM which means it can be upgraded if need be. Upgrading is sometimes called flashing the ROM. An upgrade is not recommended unless it is crucial to do so. 

First, check the BIOS version of your computer. Also, do a backup of your BIOS information in case anything goes wrong when updating. Then go to the computer manufacturer’s website, which may vary from one manufacturer to another, and download the latest version. Make sure you get the exact BIOS for your computer. Install the updates and restart the computer. It should restart without a problem unless the upgrade was not done well.

If you get the upgrade from a CD or a flash disk, you insert it and then run for the update. After installation, the system asks if you want to restart it or if it will restart automatically.

Reasons to upgrade system BIOS 

  1. To fix a damaged BIOSdata.
  2. Allow the use of newer hardware that the current BIOS cannot support.
  3. To get a new version of BIOS which bugs have been fixed.

How to recover BIOS setup after error.

If something went wrong well upgrading the computer may not restart again and you may need to restore back to the previous BIOS setup before upgrading. One you can use the backup that you created early before you start the upgrade. Another way is to restart the computer and go to BIOS setup then select restoring the previous setting or set all to default setting.

If that doesn’t work you can remove the CMOS battery which powers the BIOS memory and wait for 5 minutes then fix it back and start the computer. This technique can also be used when you made some changes to the BIOS setting and it is preventing the computer from booting the right way.

Types of storage devices and their characteristics

The storage device is used to keep a copy of data or information temporally when it is being processed, or permanently for future reference. They store the data which is used by the computer and the user. The storage capacity is calculated in terms of bytes where 1 byte is made up of 8 bits (0s and or 1s).

The main categories of storage devices are RAM, ROM, cache, magnetic, optical, cloud, and solid-state storage methods. Primary storage, they are volatile while secondary stores data permanently.


Types of computer output devices and their functions

Output devices are used to outputting of the information that has been processed from the computers. Like input devices, they are connected to the computer using various connectors like USB, VGA cables, wireless, etc.

The main function of the output devices is they allow users, applications, and other devices to communicate. Communication involves the display of information either in visual, sound, soft, or hard copy. These devices include monitors, printers, speakers, projectors, GPS, braille readers, text to speech converts among others.

output device

Output devices can be categorized into three main according to the form of output they give.

Types of computer output devices

Soft copy output devices

They produce information in soft copy form. The information can only be seen and heard but not touched.

1. Computer monitors (VDU, screen)

They produce output as a soft copy. Monitors (VDU, screen) are the main output device that produces a soft copy. They look like Television sets except that they don`t have tuning buttons.

computer monitor

Computer monitors can be divided again in terms of the technology that they use which include: Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT), Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), Plasma, and OLED screens. Most of today`s computers are using LCDs which are replacing the CRT. 

OLED technology is the future of both computer and mobile phone screens which will allow the production of screens which can even be folded. Read more on computer display here.

2. Projector

They are used to enlarge the screen output to be viewed in a larger space. Projectors are connected to the computer which projects images on a projector screen or a large surface like a wall or whiteboard. They are mostly used for presentations for a large audience. The main projectors used are LCD projectors. Read a details article on projectors.


Hard copy output devices

The devices give out information in hard copy like a printer on a piece of paper. They convert the softcopy produced on a computer monitor into paper or other surfaces.

1. Printer

Printers are used to produce information on paper. They are electronic devices that use ink and print information sent from a computer or another device.

output printer

Printers can be classified into two main classes according to how the paper and internal printer mechanisms interact. Check more details on Printers.

2. Plotters

They are used to print graphical information on paper. Unlike the printer, the plotter use pens which enable it to write a continuous line, unlike the printer which uses dots. They print vector-type of data type.

Plotters interpret commands given by the computer to draw the lines which create the graphics. They are mostly used for drawing images created from CAD  and other graphic software. Read more on the types, uses, and advantages of plotter printers.

Audio output devices

They produce sound, music, etc by converting the digital data from the computer into sound.

1. Speaker

They are electronic devices that produce sounds. They can vary in physical size and power.


2. Headphones

They are small sets of speakers mostly placed over the ears and connected to the sound card port into the computer. They are also commonly used with smartphones.

Output devices for physically challenged users

  1. Braille reader and display: this is an output device that converts a normal text to braille that blind users can understand. They achieve this by raising small pin-like parts that users can touch to read.
  2. Braille embosser: This is a braille impact printer that generates braille printouts. They can be used by blind people who can input data through speech the data is then converted to braille-recognized text by use of specialized software. After conversion, it can now be printed to braille paper by the embosser.
  3. Audio amplifiers: These are sound amplifiers that are used by partially deaf people. They amplify the sound for the user.
  4. Screen magnifiers: these are software that is used to magnify the screen. Windows operating system comes with a magnifier as an accessory tool. The magnification makes it easier to visually impaired users to read content on the screen. There is also screen magnifying software for smartphones.
  5. Text-to-speech device (narrator): it is software that reads text from a computer and converts it to audio sound. Mostly these types of software can do vice versa, which is to convert the sound to text. Windows operating system uses a narrator that reads what is on the screen.

Parts of a computer mouse and its functions

Wired USB Computer Mouse

Amazon Basics 3-Button Wired USB Computer Mouse. It is a simple wired mouse that is compatible with all computing devices. It is a plug-and-play mouse for your laptop or desktop computer. Try it now.

We earn a commission if you make a purchase, at no additional cost to you.

A computer mouse is a pointing input device that is used to click icons on a computer. It is connected to the computer by a cable or using wireless technologies. They are categorized as pointing devices because mostly they are used to point to a position on the screen to execute commands.

A mouse function is to click, select, hover, draw, scroll, drag and drop, and point icons on the computer system. It is made up of 2 buttons, right and left, a wheel, LED or laser light, a ball, and its circuit board. They are mostly used in Graphic User Interface (GUI) systems such as Windows operating systems. 


6 Components of Information

Classifications of information systems and their components

Microsoft Home & Student 2021

Microsoft Home & Student 2021. It is a One-Time purchase for 1 PC or MAC. It has Word, Excel, PowerPoint, OneNote, and Outlook. Click to try and make your office, class, or homework more professional.

We earn a commission if you make a purchase, at no additional cost to you.

Information System has been defined in so many ways by different scholar and sources. To define it simply it is an integration of various components that are coordinated together to enable managers to perform their functions more effectively. They are used to enhance decision-making in the organization, from structured, and semi-structured to non-structured decisions.

Components of an information system are hardware, software, people, procedure, networking, and database. The most common type of information system includes, transaction processing, management information system, strategic systems, and knowledge, among other categories.


Classification of computer hardware and their functions

Computer hardware is the physical tangible part of a computer. They comprise the main part of a computer both internal and external or peripherals. The main characteristic of hardware is it can be seen, felt, and even touch, unlike computer software.

The computer hardware is categorized into input, processing, storage, output, and communication devices. Each category is used for different functions. Input devices are used to enter data into the computer, then the processing component takes over to process it into information. During processing, it is stored in the main memory and secondary storage for future reference. To display the data being processed or results output devices are used and it can be shared with help of communication components.

Canon Pixma MG3620 Wireless Inkjet Printer

Have you been looking for a Wireless printer that is compatible with your smartphone, tablet, or laptop? Canon Pixma MG3620 Wireless Printer is your best choice. this means you don't need to be near your printer to do the printing which is convenient for home or office work.

We earn a commission if you make a purchase, at no additional cost to you.